From Murphy’s Law we can deduct that Internet failures always come when you least expect them. In my case, the Stratum 0 wiki was offline for a few minutes (only, thankfully!) when I really urgently(1!11) needed to look something up there. If I only had an offline clone of the wiki…

Enter: Git-Mediawiki

I had already before discovered Git-Mediawiki, which lets you mirror certain or all pages of a MediaWiki instance to a local Git repository. It achieves this by implementing the mediawiki:: remote handler, which lets you configure the URL of the remote MediaWiki instance as a Git remote, and loads the raw revisions from the MediaWiki API everytime you do a git fetch:

$ git clone mediawiki::
Cloning into 'mediawiki'...
Searching revisions...
No previous mediawiki revision found, fetching from beginning.
Fetching & writing export data by pages...
Listing pages on remote wiki...
6 pages found.
page 1/78: Vorstand
  Found 2 revision(s).
page 2/78: Atomuhr
  Found 15 revision(s).
page 3/78: Corporate Identity
  Found 6 revision(s).
page 4/78: Presse
  Found 2 revision(s).
1/804: Revision #738 of Presse
2/804: Revision #3036 of Atomuhr
3/804: Revision #3053 of Atomuhr
4/804: Revision #3054 of Atomuhr
Checking connectivity... done.

Not to mention, this can take a very long time if you try to import a whole wiki (say, Wikipedia (NO, DON’T ACTUALLY DO THIS! (or at least don’t tell them I told you how))), but you can also import only single pages or pages from certain categories with the -c remote.origin.pages=<page list> and -c remote.origin.categories=<category list> options to git-clone.

After the clone has finished, you can view the raw MediaWiki source files of the pages you imported from your computer. You can even edit them and push the changes back to the wiki if you configure your wiki user account in your Git config!

Since I had already played around with Git-Mediawiki, I had a local mirror of the Stratum 0 wiki on my laptop. Unfortunately, I had not pulled for a few weeks, and the information I needed was only added to the wiki some days ago. So for the future, it would be nice to have an automatically synchronising mirror… And not only one on my personal laptop, but also for other interested users, at least read-only.

Mirroring repositores with gitolite

The best solution for me was a mirror repository on my own server, which was already running gitolite, the popular Git hosting solution. I would simply add a read-only repository in gitolite and let a cron job handle care of automatic synchronisation.

Creating the new repository was easy, you simple add a line to your gitolite.conf, and when push the changes, gitolite creates the repository for you. But furthermore, I also wanted to configure the MediaWiki remote directly in my repository setup, for which I needed to specify the corresponding remote options for the Git configuration. The appropriate setting to allow this is in .gitolite.rc (gitolite’s main configuration file which resides in the gitolite base directory, say /home/git/ in my case), you can simply add the Git config options you want to set from gitolite.conf to the $GL_GITCONFIG_KEYS variable. Mine now looks like this:

$GL_GITCONFIG_KEYS = "remote\.* gitweb\.owner gitweb\.description";

Now I could easily add the corresponding options to my repository setup:

repo stratum0-wiki
    config gitweb.description = "Read-only Git mirror of the Stratum 0 wiki"
    config remote.origin.url = "mediawiki::"
    config remote.origin.fetch = "+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*"
    config remote.origin.fetchstrategy = "by_rev"
    RW+ = rohieb
    R   = @all daemon gitweb

Note that I let Git-Mediawiki work with the by_rev fetch strategy, which queries the MediaWiki API for all recent revisions rather than first looking for changed pages and then fetching the revisions accordingly. This is more efficient since I want to import every revision nonetheless. I also found out the hard way (i.e. through print debugging) that adding the remote.origin.fetch option is critical for Git-Mediawiki to work correctly.

Then, a simple cron job for the git user (which owns all the gitolite repositories), was created with crontab -e to update the mirror every 30 minutes:

# m h  dom mon dow   command
*/30 * * * * /home/git/update-stratum0-mediawiki-mirror

The script which does all the work resides in /home/git/update-stratum0-mediawiki-mirror:

if [ "`whoami`" != "git" ]; then
    echo "fatal: run as user 'git'."
    exit 1;

cd /home/git/git/stratum0-wiki.git/

git fetch 2>&1 | grep -i 'fatal\|error\|warn'
git update-ref refs/heads/master refs/mediawiki/origin/master

Note that we cannot simply git-merge the master branch here, because the gitolite repository is a bare repo and git-merge needs a working tree. Therefore, we only fetch new revisions from our MediaWiki remote (which fetches to refs/mediawiki/origin/master), and update the master branch manually. Since the mirror is read-only and there are no real merges to be done, this is sufficient here.

So far, we have a fully working mirror. But since the Stratum 0 wiki has grown to more than 7000 revisions to date, the initial fetch would need a while. To reduce the load on the MediaWiki API, I figured that I could reuse my existing repository on my laptop.

Re-using a previous Git-Mediawiki repo

So before activating the cron job, I pushed my exiting repository to the mirror:

~/stratum0-wiki$ git push master
~/stratum0-wiki$ git push refs/mediawiki/origin/master

A test run of the mirror script however was not happy with that and wanted to fetch ALL THE revisions anyway. So it took me another while to find out that for efficiency reasons, Git-Mediawiki stores the corresponding MediaWiki revisions in Git notes under refs/notes/origin/mediawiki. For example:

$ git log --notes=refs/notes/origin/mediawiki
commit 7e486fa8a463ebdd177e92689e45f756c05d232f
Author: Daniel Bohrer <Daniel>
Date:   Sat Mar 15 14:42:09 2014 +0000

    /* Talks am Freitag, 14. März 2014, 19:00 */ format, youtube-links

Notes (origin/mediawiki):
    mediawiki_revision: 7444


So after I also pushed refs/notes/origin/mediawiki to the mirror repo, everything was fine and a the cron job only fetched a small amount of new revisions.


To conclude this post, I have now a working MediaWiki mirror for the Stratum 0 wiki, which uses a cron job and Git-Mediawiki to fetch new revisions every 30 minutes, integrated with gitolite for hosting. If you also want to keep track of changes in the wiki and have an offline mirror for reference, feel free to pull from git://

Posted Mon 24 Mar 2014 03:12:03 AM CET Tags: License: CC-BY-SA 3.0

As I’m currently working to get a master’s degree in university, I had to write a seminar paper. I got lucky and the topic “Chatty Things – Making the Internet of Things Readily Usable with XMPP” sounded very interesting to me :-) As the title suggests, the paper describes how the XMPP protocol can be employed to facilitate user access to smart devices in the Internet of Things, and some thoughts on preventing information overflow on the user. If this sounds interesting to you as well, you should read my paper or scroll through the presentation slides ;-) The paper is licensed as CC BY-ND 3.0 (of course, you shouldn’t use it for your own paper :P), the presentation slides are CC BY-SA 3.0, and if you want to re-use it, have a look at the LATEX code.

Apart from the matter handled in the paper, I also acquired some additional skills:

  • Learn to motivate myself. The Pomodoro technique, in conjunction with chocolatey sweets for extrinsic gratification, seems to work quite well for me.
  • Learn to use TikZ to draw figures in LATEX. I already wanted to use it for a while, but it seemed complex and have a steep learning curve. It turns out that the TikZ/PGF manual is very illustrative, and has an exhaustive index for easy skimming.
  • Learn to deliver a good(?) talk. I recently discovered by Zach Holman, and apparently the tips he gives there seem to work and I felt much more secure than on previous talks. Also: a lot of practice. And test sessions. And I ditched his advice on slide design, I like my slides with latex-beamer :P
Posted Wed 26 Feb 2014 03:40:17 AM CET Tags: License: CC-BY-SA 3.0

In my last post, I used ikiwiki‘s highlight plugin to highlight PDF files. But since the underlying highlight library did not support highlighting for PDF files yet, I had to write my own highlighting definition. Due to limitiations in the library, it's not perfect; for example, it does not highlight things inside streams, but in case you’re interested, you can get the source:

Posted Wed 25 Dec 2013 09:47:43 PM CET Tags: License: CC-BY-SA 3.0


I use XSane to scan documents for my digital archive. I want them to be in PDF format and have a reasonable resolution (better than 200 dpi, so I can try OCRing them afterwards). However, the PDFs created by XSane’s multipage mode are too large, about 250 MB for a 20-page document scanned at 200 dpi.

XSane’s Multipage mode

First (non-optimal) solution

At first, I tried to optimize the PDF using GhostScript. I already wrote about how GhostScript’s -dPDFSETTINGS option can be used to minimize PDFs by redering the pictures to a smaller resolution. In fact, there are multiple rendering modes (screen for 96 dpi, ebook for 150 dpi, printer for 300 dpi, and prepress for color-preserving 300 dpi), but they are pre-defined, and for my 200 dpi images, ebook was not enough (I would lose resolution), while printer was too high and would only enlarge the PDF.

Interlude: PDF Internals

The best thing to do was to find out how the images were embedded in the PDF. Since most PDF files are also partly human-readable, I opened my file with vim. (Also, I was surprised that vim has syntax highlighting for PDF.) Before we continue, I'll give a short introduction to the PDF file format (for the long version, see Adobe’s PDF reference).

Building Blocks

Every PDF file starts with the magic string that identifies the version of the standard which the document conforms to, like %PDF-1.4. After that, a PDF document is made up of the following objects:

Boolean values
true and false
Integers and floating-point numbers
for example, 1337, -23.42 and .1415
  • interpreted as literal characters when enclosed in parentheses: (This is a string.) These can contain escaped characters, particularly escaped closing braces and control characters: (This string contains a literal \) and some\n newlines.\n).
  • interpreted as hexadecimal data when enclosed in angled brackets: <53 61 6D 70 6C 65> equals (Sample).
starting with a forward slash, like /Type. You can think of them like identifiers in programming languages.
enclosed in square brackets: [ -1 4 6 (A String) /AName [ (strings in arrays in arrays!) ] ]
key-value stores, which are enclosed in double angled brackets. The key must be a name, the value can be any object. Keys and values are given in turns, beginning with the first key: << /FirstKey (First Value) /SecondKey 3.14 /ThirdKey /ANameAsValue >> Usually, the first key is /Type and defines what the dictionary actually describes.
Stream Objects
a collection of bytes. In contrast to strings, stream objects are usually used for large amount of data which may not be read entirely, while strings are always read as a whole. For example, streams can be used to embed images or metadata.
Streams consist of a dictionary, followed by the keyword stream, the raw content of the stream, and the keyword endstream. The dictionary describes the stream’s length and the filters that have been applied to it, which basically define the encoding the data is stored in. For example, data streams can be compressed with various algorithms.
The Null Object
Represented by the literal string null.
Indirect Objects
Every object in a PDF document can also be stored as a indirect object, which means that it is given a label and can be used multiple times in the document. The label consists of two numbers, a positive object number (which makes the object unique) and a non-negative generation number (which allows to incrementally update objects by appending to the file).
Indirect objects are defined by their object number, followed by their generation number, the keyword obj, the contents of the object, and the keyword endobj. Example: 1 0 obj (I'm an object!) endobj defines the indirect object with object number 1 and generation number 0, which consists only of the string “I'm an object!”. Likewise, more complex data structures can be labeled with indirect objects.
Referencing an indirect object works by giving the object and generation number, followed by an uppercase R: 1 0 R references the object created above. References can be used everywhere where a (direct) object could be used instead.

Using these object, a PDF document builds up a tree structure, starting from the root object, which has the object number 1 and is a dictionary with the value /Catalog assigned to the key /Type. The other values of this dictionary point to the objects describing the outlines and pages of the document, which in turn reference other objects describing single pages, which point to objects describing drawing operations or text blocks, etc.

Dissecting the PDFs created by XSane

Now that we know how a PDF document looks like, we can go back to out initial problem and try to find out why my PDF file was so huge. I will walk you through the PDF object by object.


1 0 obj
   << /Type /Catalog
      /Outlines 2 0 R
      /Pages 3 0 R

This is just the magic string declaring the document as PDF-1.4, and the root object with object number 1, which references objects number 2 for Outlines and number 3 for Pages. We're not interested in outlines, let's look at the pages.

3 0 obj
   << /Type /Pages
      /Kids [
             6 0 R
             8 0 R
             10 0 R
             12 0 R
      /Count 4

OK, apparently this document has four pages, which are referenced by objects number 6, 8, 10 and 12. This makes sense, since I scanned four pages ;-)

Let's start with object number 6:

6 0 obj
    << /Type /Page
       /Parent 3 0 R
       /MediaBox [0 0 596 842]
       /Contents 7 0 R
       /Resources << /ProcSet 8 0 R >>

We see that object number 6 is a page object, and the actual content is in object number 7. More redirection, yay!

7 0 obj
    << /Length 2678332     >>
1 0 0 1 0 0 cm
1.000000 0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 0 0 cm
595.080017 0 0 841.679993 0 0 cm
  /W 1653
  /H 2338
  /CS /G
  /BPC 8
  /F /FlateDecode
x$¼[$;¾åù!fú¥¡aæátq.4§ [ ...byte stream shortened... ]

Aha, here is where the magic happens. Object number 7 is a stream object of 2,678,332 bytes (about 2 MB) and contains drawing operations! After skipping around a bit in Adobe’s PDF reference (chapters 3 and 4), here is the annotated version of the stream content:

q                 % Save drawing context
1 0 0 1 0 0 cm    % Set up coordinate space for image
1.000000 0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 0 0 cm
595.080017 0 0 841.679993 0 0 cm
BI                % Begin Image
  /W 1653           % Image width is 1653 pixel
  /H 2338           % Image height is 2338 pixel
  /CS /G            % Color space is Gray
  /BPC 8            % 8 bits per pixel
  /F /FlateDecode   % Filters: data is Deflate-compressed
ID                % Image Data follows:
x$¼[$;¾åù!fú¥¡aæátq.4§ [ ...byte stream shortened... ]
EI                % End Image
Q                 % Restore drawing context

So now we know why the PDF was so huge: the line /F /FlateDecode tells us that the image data is stored losslessly with Deflate compression (this is basically what PNG uses). However, scanned images, as well as photographed pictures, have the tendency to become very big when stored losslessly, due to te fact that image sensors always add noise from the universe and lossless compression also has to take account of this noise. In contrast, lossy compression like JPEG, which uses discrete cosine transform, only has to approximate the image (and therefore the noise from the sensor) to a certain degree, therefore reducing the space needed to save the image. And the PDF standard also allows image data to be DCT-compressed, by adding /DCTDecode to the filters.

Second solution: use a (better) compression algorithm

Now that I knew where the problem was, I could try to create PDFs with DCT compression. I still had the original, uncompressed PNM files that fell out of XSane’ multipage mode (just look in the multipage project folder), so I started to play around a bit with ImageMagick’s convert tool, which can also convert images to PDF.

Converting PNM to PDF

First, I tried converting the umcompressed PNM to PDF:

$ convert image*.pnm document.pdf

convert generally takes parameters of the form inputfile outputfile, but it also allows us to specify more than one input file (which is somehow undocumented in the man page). In that case it tries to create multi-page documents, if possible. With PDF as output format, this results in one input file per page.

The embedded image objects looked somewhat like the following:

8 0 obj
    /Type /XObject
    /Subtype /Image
    /Name /Im0
    /Filter [ /RunLengthDecode ]
    /Width 1653
    /Height 2338
    /ColorSpace 10 0 R
    /BitsPerComponent 8
    /Length 9 0 R
% [ raw byte data ]

The filter /RunLengthDecode indicates that the stream data is compressed with Run-length encoding, another simple lossless compression. Not what I wanted. (Apart from that, convert embeds images as XObjects, but there is not much difference to the inline images described above.)

Converting PNM to JPG, then to PDF

Next, I converted the PNMs to JPG, then to PDF.

$ convert image*.pnm image.jpg
$ convert image*jpg document.pdf

(The first command creates the output files image-1.jpg, image-2.jpg, etc., since JPG does not support multiple pages in one file.)

When looking at the PDF, we see that we now have DCT-compressed images inside the PDF:

8 0 obj
    /Type /XObject
    /Subtype /Image
    /Name /Im0
    /Filter [ /DCTDecode ]
    /Width 1653
    /Height 2338
    /ColorSpace 10 0 R
    /BitsPerComponent 8
    /Length 9 0 R
% [ raw byte data ]

Converting PNM to JPG, then to PDF, and fix page size

However, the pages in document.pdf are 82.47×58.31 cm, which results in about 72 dpi in respect to the size of the original images. But convert also allows us to specify the pixel density, so we'll set that to 200 dpi in X and Y direction, which was the resolution at which the images were scanned:

$ convert image*jpg -density 200x200 document.pdf

Update: You can also use the -page parameter to set the page size directly. It takes a multitude of predefined paper formats (see link) and will do the pixel density calculation for you, as well as adding any neccessary offset if the image ratio is not quite exact:

$ convert image*jpg -page A4 document.pdf

With that approach, I could reduce the size of my PDF from 250 MB with losslessly compressed images to 38 MB with DCT compression.

Another update (2023): Marcus notified me that it is possible to use ImageMagick's -compress jpeg option, this way we can leave out the intermediate step and convert PNM to PDF directly:

$ convert image*.pnm -compress jpeg -quality 85 output.pdf

You can also play around with the -quality parameter to set the JPEG compression level (100% makes almost pristine, but huge images; 1% makes very small, very blocky images), 85% should still be readable for most documents in that resolution.

Too long, didn’t read

Here’s the gist for you:

  • Read the article above, it’s very comprehensive :P
  • Use convert on XSane’s multipage images and specify your scanning resolution:

    $ convert image*.pnm image.jpg
    $ convert image*jpg -density 200x200 document.pdf

Further reading

There is probably software out there which does those thing for you, with a shiny user interface, but I could not find one quickly. What I did find though, was this detailed article, which describes how to get high-resolution scans wihh OCR information in PDF/A and DjVu format, using scantailor and unpaper.

Also, Didier Stevens helped me understand stream objects in in his illustrated blogpost. He seems to write about PDF more often, and it was fun to poke around in his blog. There is also a nice script, pdf-parser, which helps you visualize the structure of a PDF document.

Posted Sun 17 Nov 2013 11:58:35 PM CET Tags: License: CC-BY-SA 3.0


I was debugging a program, which suddenly died with

QFATAL : TestEdge::testSaveRemove() Received signal 11

For better understanding of the problem, it would be nice to know what the meaning of “signal 11” is.


I was not so fluent in signal numbers (maybe I should take a course). Of course, I could dig in the signal(7) man page, or in the respective C header (signal.h). However, while digging in the manpages, I noticed that kill(1) does not only kill processes, but also does exactly what I want.[^1] Citing from the man page:

-l, --list [signal]
  List  signal  names.   This  option has optional argument, which
  will convert signal number to signal name, or other way round.

[^1]: At least the version in Debian, which is from procps

So I could just say:

$ kill -l 11

Ah, segmentation fault. Nice to know :-)

In addition, the man page also mentions a useful parameter -L, which prints a nice table of signal numbers and mnemonics:

$ /bin/kill -L
 1 HUP      2 INT      3 QUIT     4 ILL      5 TRAP     6 ABRT  7 BUS
 8 FPE      9 KILL    10 USR1    11 SEGV    12 USR2    13 PIPE 14 ALRM
15 TERM    16 STKFLT  17 CHLD    18 CONT    19 STOP    20 TSTP 21 TTIN
22 TTOU    23 URG     24 XCPU    25 XFSZ    26 VTALRM  27 PROF 28 WINCH
29 POLL    30 PWR     31 SYS

(Also, the man page also warns about kill probably being a shell built-in. At least the Bash and zsh built-ins also know -l, but not -L, so you have to call /bin/kill explicitly.)

Posted Sat 09 Nov 2013 12:14:00 AM CET Tags: License: CC-BY-SA 3.0

Problem: I just bought Portal for Linux. When I start the game on my AMD64 laptop with Debian testing, I only see black objects, and a few light stripes in between. Everything else works, I can hear sound, I can interact with objects, and I can look and around, in which case the stripes also move in the right directions, so they seem to be speckles or reflections rendered on objects, and only the textures are missing.

Solution: Searching the Steam forums resulted in nothing (who would have guessed), but this forum post suggested to update Mesa to version 9.2 and install libtxc-dxtn or libtxc-dxtn-s2tc0. This packages were not installed on my system, and the description for the package says that it is used for texture compression, so it seems to be related. So I first tried to install the i386 version:

aptitude install libtxc-dxtn-s2tc0 libtxc-dxtn-s2tc0:i386

After restarting Portal, the problem was gone, so I refrained from updating my Mesa :-)

Before and after images (probably Copyright by Valve, but I consider this to be fair use):

Posted Tue 29 Oct 2013 04:26:12 AM CET Tags: License: CC-BY-SA 3.0

Sooo. You might already have noticed that I moved my blag from to my own domain. There were several reasons for that, which also kept me from blogging actively. At first, WordPress seemed like a good solution for beginners, and since I didn’t want to set up my own (probably buggy) instance, a hosted blog at seemed like the best solution to get started with blogging.

However, the free plan at does not allow very much customization: you can choose from a few themes, but you can neither edit the underlying HTML framework of the page, nor is is possible to do a little CSS tweaking. For example, I like my <code> tags with a little darker background so they become more distinguished from the remaining text and so you can easily see what you have to type on your keyboard and what not.

Also, I had to write blogposts in my browser. I’m not a big fan of the idea that the browser should become an “operating system” for the web cloud. My computer is more than a dumb terminal for the web, I like my terminals and my offline applications and distributed workflows. In most cases, I find distributed workflows much more flexible, and you can choose if and when you want to lose control over your data to the cloud. And, without question, I lost more than one draft to browser crashes (admittedly, Firefox got a lot more stable since then), accidentally closed tabs and timed out login sessions. And WordPress tends to be overloaded with complex page layouts and JavaScript, which makes everything soooo slooooow…

So it seemed obvious to move my blog to my existing site, which already runs on ikiwiki. For those who do not know ikiwiki, it is a static site generator which takes Markdown[^1] files as input and spits out static HTML pages. It works good in combination with Git (a distributed version control system, which I use all day anyway), which makes it possible to write and preview every page on your own computer, using your favourite editor, offline (in fact I’m writing this post from a laundrette), and when everything is finished (and you have Internet access), you push it to your server, where everything is rendered. There is also an easy way to aggregate multiple pages to a blog, including the automatic generation of RSS and Atom feeds. Also I have full control over the CSS (which will probably still change in the next few weeks) and the templates used to render the HTML files. For example, I have hacked together a little plugin to support Flattr buttons and integrated it into the template which is used to render the blog posts. There is even a dynamic part of ikiwiki which allows users to add comments, I may or may not try that in the future and convert all the WordPress comments. And finally, if you want, you can read the full source code of every page :-)

The move to ikiwiki was already in my head a long time, so I started writing new blogposts in Markdown right away, so they started piling up on my disk. Now that I have the new setup, I already have content to fill the next few weeks, so stay tuned!

Update: In this process I was also moving the site to a new server, which also provides IPv6 connectivity:

$ dig -t AAAA

; <<>> DiG 9.8.4-rpz2+rl005.12-P1 <<>> -t AAAA
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 64670
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0

;               IN  AAAA

;; ANSWER SECTION:        2629    IN  AAAA    2a03:4000:2:2f3::1

;; Query time: 3 msec
;; WHEN: Tue Oct 29 04:33:03 2013
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 57

[^1]: Though I’m using MultiMarkdown for most pages, which is a superset of Markdown with additional features (like footnotes). But ikiwiki also supports other markup languages, e.g. reStructuredText or Textile.

Posted Sun 27 Oct 2013 02:21:56 AM CET Tags: License: CC-BY-SA 3.0

Today I stumbled over a lengthy patch on my harddisk. It was about half a year old, and consisted of only one hunk, which was about 1000 lines in length. Most of the contents were indentation changes from tabs to spaces, but I knew that the patch contained a small useful portion, which I wanted to extract. What was slightly more annoying was the fact the the patch did not apply cleanly to the file it was supposed to change, and patch only applies hunks atomically, the whole patch was rejected.

Since I did not want to compare each of the lines in the patch visually and decide whether they changed only whitespace, I tried to look for a way to split the patch into smaller hunks. My first try was looking at the useful tool in the patchutils package, but none of them did what I wanted, they only allowed me to split patches into single hunks (but my patch already had only one hunk).

But after a bit of googling, I found out that Emacs has a diff-split-hunk command, so I installed Emacs (for the first time in my life), opened my patch, selected Emacs' Diff mode with M-x diff-mode, and split the patch into smaller hunks by pressing C-x C-s on appropriate context lines. After saving, the patch applied cleanly except for two smaller hunks, which I could easily identify as containing only whitespace changes. Then I could compare my patched file with the original file, this time ignoring whitespace changes with diff -w, and, voilà, I got the seven useful lines I wanted.

For illustration, see the different edit stages of my patch on a separate page.

Posted Thu 24 Oct 2013 06:30:29 PM CEST Tags: License: CC-BY-SA 3.0

If you have a PDF file and want it to be in a specific PDF version (for example, the print shop where you just ordered some adhesive labels wants the print master in PDF 1.3, but your Inkscape only exports PDF 1.4), Ghostscript can help:

gs -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -dCompatibilityLevel=1.5 -dNOPAUSE -dQUIET \
  -dBATCH -sOutputFile=new-pdf1.5.pdf original.pdf

(this converts the file original.pdf to PDF 1.5 and writes it to new-pdf1.5.pdf)

Also, if you have a huge PDF of several megabyte because there are many high-resolution pictures in it, Ghostscript can minify it (and shrink the pictures to 96 dpi) if you use the parameter -dPDFSETTINGS=/screen.

Posted Sat 09 Jun 2012 07:06:00 PM CEST Tags: License: CC-BY-SA 3.0

Everytime I was using my wireless USB keyboard with my laptop while the power cable was not connected, the keyboard behaviour was lousy, and keystrokes tend to be delayed by several seconds. The kernel logs said something like

[23302.802096] uhci_hcd 0000:00:1a.0: setting latency timer to 64
[23302.842177] uhci_hcd 0000:00:1a.1: PCI INT B -> GSI 21 (level, low) -> IRQ 21
[23302.842190] uhci_hcd 0000:00:1a.1: setting latency timer to 64
[23302.882145] uhci_hcd 0000:00:1a.2: PCI INT C -> GSI 19 (level, low) -> IRQ 19
[23302.882158] uhci_hcd 0000:00:1a.2: setting latency timer to 64
[23302.929065] uhci_hcd 0000:00:1d.1: PCI INT B -> GSI 19 (level, low) -> IRQ 19
[23302.929079] uhci_hcd 0000:00:1d.1: setting latency timer to 64

Searching on Google, I found a forum post which suggested to disable USB auto-suspend in the laptop-mode configuration files. The relevant file on my Ubuntu 12.04 is /etc/laptop-mode/conf.d/usb-autosuspend.conf, which is fairly well documented, and has an option AUTOSUSPEND_USBID_BLACKLIST which allowed me to blacklist my USB keyboard, so the device was no longer put in auto-suspend mode. (The USB ID needed for AUTOSUSPEND_USBID_BLACKLIST can be found in the output of lsusb)

After editing that file, I had to restart the laptop-mode daemon (sudo /etc/init.d/laptop-mode restart), and keystrokes from my wireless keyboard arrived again without any delay.

Posted Sun 29 Apr 2012 01:09:00 AM CEST Tags: License: CC-BY-SA 3.0